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Ameliorarea plantelor necesită ameliorare
This article highlights main issues and possible solution in plant breeding in free market conditions, including phases and objectives for creating intellectual goods, forms and possibilities of financing, protecting and promoting intellectual goods (races, hybrids, technologies), fostering the authors and other aspects.

Analiza factorială a specificităţii ciupercii Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler
In the article are presented data on the action specificity of Alternaria alternata culture filtrate, isolated from the sick plant of tomatoes, on the tomatoes, wheat and soya plant growth. It was established that the responding reaction of the plants was differentiated, being manifested by stimulation or inhibition, and depended from the plant cultivar, variety, fungus strain and temperature conditions. Through factorial analysis it was established that in comparison with wheat and soya, at tomatoes the share of the genotypic factor in the response reaction at the fungus action was higher, that reveals a possible specialization of the pathogen for the host-plant-tomatoes. 9 references, 4 tables.

Biochemical diversity of the Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. and origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (link) ietswaart genotypes from Moldova
Gonceariuc Maria, Balmuş Zinaida, Benea Ana, Barsan Victoria, Sandu Tatiana. // Journal of Academy of Sciences of Moldova. Life sciences. 2015, No 3(326), p. 92-100. Five genotypes of O.vulgare ssp. vulgare L. and five genotypes of O.vulgare ssp. hirtum have been assessed. The diversity of O. vulgare ssp. vulgare. and O. vulgare ssp. hirtum genotypes has been confirmed through the essential oil content, qualitative and quantitative components. The content of the essential oil separated by hydrodistillation varies between 0,077% and 0,360% in the genotypes O.vulgare ssp. vulgare, and between 2,315% and 4,923% in the O.vulgare ssp. hirtum genotypes. Qualitative and quantitative analyses performed using GC GC-MS techniques have found from 18 to 29 components in the O.vulgare ssp. vulgaris essential oil, depending on the genotype, the identification ratio being 92,38%-98,80%. The component number varies between 18 and 25 depending on the genotypes of O. vulgare ssp. hirtum, this constituting 99,87-100 % of the essential oil. The major components in the essential oil of O. vulgare ssp. vulgare include Germacrene D (33,98–26,01%); β-Caryophyllene (12,16–33,16%); γ-Elemene (3,82 – 16,79%), while β- Bisabolene (6,83-16,04) is the major component in four genotypes. The O. vulgare ssp. vulgare genotypes are divided into five chemotypes: 1. Germacrene D/β-Caryophyllene/β-Bisabolene; 2. Germacrene D/β-Caryophyllene/δ-( )Cadinole/ γ-Elemene; 3. Germacrene D/ γ-Elemene/ β-Caryophyllene/ β- Bisabolene; 4. β-Caryophyllene/ Germacrene D/ β- Bisabolene; 5. Germacrene D/ β-Caryophyllene/γ-Elemene/β- Bisabolene. The major components in the essential oil of O. vulgare ssp. hirtum are carvacrol (77,61-85,88%), followed by p-cymene (3,64-9,33%) or γ-terpinene (8,22%) and p-cymene (5,30%). The O.vulgare ssp. hirtum genotypes are divided into two chemotypes: 1-carvacrol/γ-terpinene/p-cymene and carvacrol/γ-terpinene/p-cymene/ β-Caryophyllene. The variability of the content of polyphenols in the genotypes of both subspecies has been demonstrated. Rich in polyphenols are genotypes belonging O.vulgare ssp. vulgaris: from 99,25 ± 1,598 to 166,43±3,594 mg/100g. The genotypes of O.vulgare ssp. hirtum, synthesizes and accumulate polyphenols from 53,51± 0,684 to 85,59±0,719 mg/100g. 42references, 3 tables.

Characteristics of tomato varieties after valuable economic features
Siromeatnicov Iulia, Cotenco Eugenia, Calalb Tatiana, Ciobanu Renata. // Journal of Academy of Sciences of Moldova. Life sciences. 2015, No 3(326), p. 131-137. Distant hybridization and biotechnological methods (in vitro immature embryo saving and histo-anatomical analyses) have resulted in developing tomato collection with valuable quantitative features for improvement. The Iulihirsutian variety and Anatolie variety in memory of Prof, Acad. Jacotă has been characterized by maximum photosynthetic activity compared with other analyzed genotypes. Structural peculiarities of these genotypes (increased number of secretory and tector hairs, stomata presence and openness of octiolei, especially on adaxial leaf epidermis, mesophyll thickness palisade, spongy and correlated between them) have resulted in histo-anatomical organization with leaf tolerance to drought and a significant contribution to establishing a greater photosynthetic activity of the above-mentioned genotypes. Based on the data obtained there were identified new sources of higher productivity and resistance, which were included in the hybridization process and development of new tomato populations (lines and varieties) and submitted to the State Commission for Plant Varieties Testing and two varieties were approved for cultivation in the open field in Moldova. 17 references, 2 tables, 2 figures.

Contribution to the knowledge of vegetative organs structure pf Paeonia peregrina MiLL.
The authors investigated the vegetative organs structure of Paeonia peregrina Mill. (P. romanica Brândză), protected as natural monument included in the Critical list of vascular plants from Romania. The structure of tuberous roots reminds of the structure of a rhizome, the conductive tissue forming collateral vascular bundles, disposed on a circle and separated by large medullary rays. The mechanic tissues of the stem are represented by hypodermic collenchyma and sclerenchyma (periphloemic fibers, libriform and medullary rays). The foliar blade presents a bifacial-heterofacial structure, having a single layer of palisadic tissue, consisting of short and occasionally septate cells on the outer side. 12 references, 3 figures.

Cuantificarea unor efecte ale ultravioletelor la Phaseolus vulgaris l. în vederea identificării de genotipuri cu diferite capacități de utilizare a radiațiilor solare
The objective of these surveys was to establish the effects of UV radiation (beneficial or harmful) on Phaseolus vulgaris L. in order to identify genotypes with different capacities for using solar radiation. The content of flavonoids, izoflavonoids, lignin was determined, dimer formation at the DNA level was traced as a result of UV irradiation and DNA photolysis photoreparing, cytogenetic studies were carried out and, respectively, studies on the variation of agronomic and biochemical parameters of the germinating bean varieties under natural environment and UV-B environment. There was a relatively uniform response of varieties to all analyzed parameters, the differences in response was minimal, so none of varieties could be considered particularly sensitive or resistant to UV irradiation. 9 references.

Evaluarea actiunii derivatilor polianionici glicozid-furostanolici asupra diviziunii mitotice si a cromosomilor la specii vegetale test
Journal of Academy of Sciences of Moldova. Life sciences. 2015, No 3(326), p. 76-79. Glicosidic biopreparations were tested in these studies to reveal their impact on the process of mitotic division and implicitly of chromosomes. It was found that mitotic indices of Secale cereale demonstrated decrease in treatment variants of glycoside-furostanolic polyanionic derivatives. Increase in the value of this parameter was not detected in any of the experimental variants. A structural chromosomal mutations percent increase was determined for the variants studied compared to check variants. Usually aberrations were present more frequently with types of: ana-telophase with decks, bridges and fragments, fragments. references, 12 figures.

Expression of genes involved in sclareol biosynthesis in Salvia sclarea L
Journal of Academy of Sciences of Moldova. Life sciences. 2015, No 3(326), p. 80-86. Salvia sclarea L. has received attention for its broad range of pharmacological activities and used for fragrances and cosmetics industry. However, little is known at the genetics of the secondary metabolites synthesis in that plant. In this research, the real-time PCR was used to estimation of LPPS and SS gene expression, involved into sclareol metabolic pathway. An

Expression of some genes in barley under viral infection
Impact of viral infection on susceptible host includes a variety of responses affecting structural aspects, physiological and genetic processes. Using qRT-PCR, it was established quantitative deviations in expression levels of some genes in leaves of barley seedlings obtained from plants infected with barley stripe mosaic virus. The activity of genes studied in the present experiment was clearly influenced by viral infection. In barley progenies obtained from virus infected plants the expression of genes involved in antioxidant metabolism (Apx and Sod) was decreased in most variants. The relative expression of genes for pathogenesis-related proteins was significantly (P<0,05) modified in evaluated barley cultivars (Galactic, Sonor and Unirea). The obtained data showed up- or down- regulation of PR3 and PR10 in dependence of genotype, whereas for PR5 was reported only the up-regulation effects for all treated variants. 33 references, 2 tables, 1 figures.

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